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Posts Tagged ‘Copper’

Air-Gaps for FinFETs Shown at IEDM

Friday, October 28th, 2016


By Ed Korczynski, Sr. Technical Editor

Researchers from IBM and Globalfoundries will report on the first use of “air-gaps” as part of the dielectric insulation around active gates of “10nm-node” finFETs at the upcoming International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) of the IEEE ( Happening in San Francisco in early December, IEDM 2016 will again provide a forum for the world’s leading R&D teams to show off their latest-greatest devices, including 7nm-node finFETs by IBM/Globalfoundries/Samsung and by TSMC. Air-gaps reduce the dielectric capacitance that slows down ICs, so their integration into transistor structures leads to faster logic chips.

History of Airgaps – ILD and IPD

As this editor recently covered at SemiMD, in 1998, Ben Shieh—then a researcher at Stanford University and now a foundry interface for Apple Corp.—first published (Shieh, Saraswat & McVittie. IEEE Electron Dev. Lett., January 1998) on the use of controlled pitch design combined with CVD dielectrics to form “pinched-off keyholes” in cross-sections of inter-layer dielectrics (ILD).

In 2007, IBM researchers showed a way to use sacrificial dielectric layers as part of a subtractive process that allows air-gaps to be integrated into any existing dielectric structure. In an interview with this editor at that time, IBM Fellow Dan Edelstein explained, “we use lithography to etch a narrow channel down so it will cap off, then deliberated damage the dielectric and etch so it looks like a balloon. We get a big gap with a drop in capacitance and then a small slot that gets pinched off.

Intel presented on their integration of air-gaps into on-chip interconnects at IITC in 2010 but delayed use until the company’s 14nm-node reached production in 2014. 2D-NAND fabs have been using air-gaps as part of the inter-poly dielectric (IPD) for many years, so there is precedent for integration near the gate-stack.

Airgaps for finFETs

Now researchers from IBM and Globalfoundries will report in (IEDM Paper #17.1, “Air Spacer for 10nm FinFET CMOS and Beyond,” K. Cheng et al) on the first air-gaps used at the transistor level in logic. Figure 1 shows that for these “10nm-node” finFETs the dielectric spacing—including the air-gap and both sides of the dielectric liner—is about 10 nm. The liner needs to be ~2nm thin so that ~1nm of ultra-low-k sacrificial dielectric remains on either side of the ~5nm air-gap.

Fig.1: Schematic of partial air-gaps only above fin tops using dielectric liners to protect gate stacks during air-gap formation for 10nm finFET CMOS and beyond. (source: IEDM 2016, Paper#17.1, Fig.12)

These air-gaps reduced capacitance at the transistor level by as much as 25%, and in a ring oscillator test circuit by as much as 15%. The researchers say a partial integration scheme—where the air-gaps are formed only above the tops of fin— minimizes damage to the FinFET, as does the high-selectivity etching process used to fabricate them.

Figure 2 shows a cross-section transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of what can go wrong with etch-back air-gaps when all of the processes are not properly controlled. Because there are inherent process:design interactions needed to form repeatable air-gaps of desired shapes, this integration scheme should be extendable “beyond” the “10-nm node” to finFETs formed at tighter pitches. However, it seems likely that “5nm-node” logic FETs will use arrays of horizontal silicon nano-wires (NW), for which more complex air-gap integration schemes would seem to be needed.

Fig.2: TEM image of FinFET transistor damage—specifically, erosion of the fin and source-drain epitaxy—by improper etch-back of the air-gaps at 10nm dimensions. (source: IEDM 2016, Paper#17.1, Fig.10)


Leti’s CoolCube 3D Transistor Stacking Improves with Qualcomm Help

Wednesday, April 27th, 2016

By Ed Korczynski, Sr. Technical Editor

As previously covered by Solid State Technology CEA-Leti in France has been developing monolithic transistor stacking based on laser re-crystallization of active silicon in upper layers called “CoolCube” (TM). Leading mobile chip supplier Qualcomm has been working with Leti on CoolCube R&D since late 2013, and based on preliminary results have opted to continue collaborating with the goal of building a complete ecosystem that takes the technology from design to fabrication.

“The Qualcomm Technologies and Leti teams have demonstrated the potential of this technology for designing and fabricating high-density and high-performance chips for mobile devices,” said Karim Arabi, vice president of engineering, Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. “We are optimistic that this technology could address some of the technology scaling issues and this is why we are extending our collaboration with Leti.” As part of the collaboration, Qualcomm Technologies and Leti are sharing the technology through flexible, multi-party collaboration programs to accelerate adoption.

Olivier Faynot, micro-electronic component section manager of CEA-Leti, in an exclusive interview with Solid State Technology and SemiMD explained, “Today we have a strong focus on CMOS over CMOS integration, and this is the primary integration that we are pushing. What we see today is the integration of NMOS over PMOS is interesting and suitable for new material incorporation such as III-V and germanium.”

Table: Critical thermal budget steps summary in a planar FDSOI integration and CoolCube process for top FET in 3DVLSI. (Source: VLSI Symposium 2015)

The Table shows that CMOS over CMOS integration has met transistor performance goals with low-temperature processes, such that the top transistors have at least 90% of the performance compared to the bottom. Faynot says that recent results for transistors are meeting specification, while there is still work to be done on inter-tier metal connections. For advanced ICs there is a lot of interconnect routing congestion around the contacts and the metal-1 level, so inter-tier connection (formerly termed the more generic “local interconnect”) levels are needed to route some gates at the bottom level for connection to the top level.

“The main focus now is on the thermal budget for the integration of the inter-tier level,” explained Faynot. “To do this, we are not just working on the processing but also working closely with the designers. For example, depending on the material chosen for the metal inter-tier there will be different limits on the metal link lengths.” Tungsten is relatively more stable than copper, but with higher electrical resistance for inherently lower limits on line lengths. Additional details on such process-design co-dependencies will be disclosed during the 2016 VLSI Technology Symposium, chaired by Raj Jammy.

When the industry decides to integrate III-V and Ge alternate-channel materials in CMOS, the different processing conditions for each should make NMOS over PMOS CoolCube a relatively easy performance extension. “Three-fives and germanium are basically materials with low thermal budgets, so they would be most compatible with CoolCube processing,” reminded Faynot. “To me, this kind of technology would be very interesting for mobile applications, because it would achieve a circuit where the length of the wires would be shortened. We would expect to save in area, and have less of a trade-off between power-consumption and speed.”

“This is a new wave that CoolCube is creating and it has been possible thanks to the interest and support of Qualcomm Technologies, which is pushing the technological development in a good direction and sending a strong signal to the microelectronics community,” said Leti CEO Marie Semeria. “Together, we aim to build a complete ecosystem with foundries, equipment suppliers, and EDA and design houses to assemble all the pieces of the puzzle and move the technology into the product-qualification phase.”


Air-gaps in Copper Interconnects for Logic

Friday, October 31st, 2014


By Ed Korczynski, Sr. Technical Editor, SST/SemiMD

The good people at ChipWorks have released some of the first public data on Intel’s new 14nm-node process, and the results indicate that materials limitations in on-chip electrical interconnects are adding costs. Additional levels of metal have been added, and complex “air-gap” structures have been added to the dielectric stack. Flash memory chips have already used air-gaps, and IBM has already used a subtractive variant of air-gaps with >10 levels of metal for microprocessor manufacturing, but this is the first known use of additive air-gaps for logic after Intel announced that a fully-integrated process was ready for 22nm-node chips.

Mark Bohr of Intel famously published data in 1995 (DOI:  10.1109/IEDM.1995.499187) on the inherent circuit speed limitations of interconnects, showing proportionality to the resistance (R) of the metal lines multiplied by the capacitance (C) of the dielectric insulation around the metal (Fig.1). The RC product thus should be minimized for maximum circuit speed, but the materials used for both the metal and the dielectric insulation around metal lines are at limits of affordability in manufacturing.

There are no materials that super-conduct electricity at room temperature, and only expensive and room-sized supercomputers and telecommunications base-stations can afford to use the liquid-nitrogen cooling that is needed for known superconductors to function. Carbon Nano-Tubes (CNT) and 2D atomic-layers of carbon in the form of graphene can conduct ballistically, but integration costs and electrical contact resistances limit use. Copper metal remains as the best electrical conductor for on-chip interconnects, yet as horizontal lines and vertical vias continue to shrink in cross-sectional area the current density has reached the limit of reliability. The result is the increase in the number of metal layers to 13 for 14nm-node Intel microprocessors, while IBM used 15 layers for 22nm-node Power8 chips.

Low-k Dielectrics and Pore Sizes

The dielectric constant (“k”) of silicon oxide is ~4, and ~3.5 with the addition of fluorine to the oxide (SiOF). Carbon-Doped Oxide (CDO or SiOC or SiOC:H) with k~3.0 has been integrated well into interconnect stacks. Some polymers can provide k values in the 2.0-2.7, but they cannot be integrated into most interconnects due to lack of mechanical strength, chemical resistance, and overall stability. Air has k=1, and there have been specialized chips made using metal wires floating in air, but lack of physical structure results in poor manufacturing yield and weak reliability.

A clever compromise is to use both SiOC with k~3 and air with k~1 in a stack, which results in an integrated k value weighted by the percent of the volume taken up by each phase. Porous Low-k (PLK) with 10% porosity allows for an integrated k of ~2.7 for modest improvement, but increasing porosity to just 20% for k~2.4 results in connected random pores that reduce reliability. To reliably integrate 20-30% air into SiOC, the pores cannot be random but must be engineered as discrete gaps in the structure.

In 2007, IBM announced that it would engineer air-gaps in microprocessors, but the company claimed to be using an extremely complex process for integration involving a self-assembled thin-film mask to anisotropically etch out holes between lines and then further isotropic etching to form elongated pores. Though relatively complex and expensive, this process allows for the use of any 2D layout for lines in a given metal layer.

Additive Air-gap Process-Design Integration

For fab lines that are still working with aluminum metal and additive dielectrics, air-gaps are a defect that occurs with imperfect dielectric fill. When not planned as part of the design, air-gaps formed in a lower-layer can be exposed to etchants during subsequent processing resulting in metal shorts or opens. However, Figure 2 shows that it is possible to engineer air-gaps by Chemical-Vapor Deposition (CVD) of dielectric material into line-space structures with proper process control and design layout restrictions. Twenty years ago, this editor worked for an OEM on CVD processes for dielectric fill, and the process can be tuned to be highly repeatable and relatively low-cost if a critical masking step can be avoided. In 1998, Shieh et al. from Stanford (Shieh, Saraswat & McVittie. IEEE Electron Dev. Lett., January 1998) showed proof-of-concept for this approach to lower k values.

Figure 2: CVD can be easily tuned to initially coat sidewalls (top), then pinch-off (middle), and finally form a closed pore (bottom) during one step. (Source: Ed Korczynski)

Four years ago at IEDM 2010, Intel presented details of how to engineer air-gaps using CVD. As this editor wrote at that time in an extensive analysis:

The lithographic masking step is needed for two reliability reasons. First, by excluding air-gap formation in areas near next-layer vias, alignment between layers can be more easily done. Second, wide spaces are excluded where the final non-conformal CVD step wouldnt automatically pinch-off to close the gaps; leaving full SiOC(H) in wider spaces also helps with mechanical strength. The next layer is patterned with a conventional dual-damascene flow, with the option to add air-gaps.

Now we know that Intel kept air-gaps on the metaphorical shelf by skipping use at the 22nm-node. The 2014 IEDM paper from Intel will discuss details of 14nm-node air-gaps:   two levels at 80nm and 160nm minimum pitches, yielding a 17% reduction in capacitance delays.

This process requires regularly spaced 1D line arrays as a design constraint, which may also be part of the reason for additional metal layers to allow for 2D connections through vias. Due to lithography resolution advantages with 1D “gridded” layouts, other logic fabs may soon run 1D designs at which point additive air-gaps like that used by Intel will provide a relatively easy boost to IC speeds.